Terminology and concepts developed by Fritz
Klein in his studies of bisexuality are extremely helpful in developing
cross-divide discourse about sexual orientation.
Using the Klein Scale to Teach about Sexual
"Sexual identity (how people think
of themselves) sometimes has little to do with their sexual behavior."
The American Psychiatric Association's Fact Sheet (a PDF file) on Gay
Lesbian Bisexual issues
"All major professional mental heath organizations have
gone on record to affirm that homosexuality is not a mental disorder"
... Some people believe that sexual orientation is innate and fixed;
however, sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime" ...
"Noone knows what causes heterosexuality, homosexuality, or
bisexuality... to date there are no replicated scientific studies
supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality.
Similarly, no specific psychosocial or family dynamic cause for
homosexuality has been identified, including histories of family sexual
"Are Gays Born That Way?" http://www.narth.com/docs/bornway.html
"The best overall summary of most respected researchers is
that homosexuality (like most other psychological conditions) is
due to a combination of social, biological, and psychological
factors." The quote is from a paper by NARTH which quotes
from researchers in the field, researchers from both sides of the
divide. This paper is far more balanced than most NARTH papers
and books which not only push a developmental theory, they also
American Psychiatric Association "Fact
Sheet on Gay Lesbian and Bisexual Issues. (a pdf file)
Page 5, Paragraph 2:
"The validity, efficacy, and ethics of clinical attempts to change an
individual's sexual orientation have been challenged. To date
there are no scientifically rigrous outcome studies to determine either
the actual efficacy or harm of "reparative" treatments. There is
sparse scientific data about select criteria, risks versus benefits of
the treatment, and long-term outcomes of "reparative' therapies.
The literature consists of anecdotal reports of individuals who have
claimed to change, people who claim that attempts to change were harmful
to them, and others who claimed to have changed and then later recanted
Page 4, excerpt from 1998
"The American Psychiatric Association does not currently have a formal
position statement on treatments that attempt to change a person's
sexual orientation... there is no published evidence regarding the
efficacy of "reparative therapy" ... More importantly, altering
sexual orientation is not an appropriate goal of psychiatric
treatment... The American Psychiatric Associan opposes any psychiatric
treatment, such as "reparative" or "conversion" therapy that is based
on the assumption that homosexuality per se is based on a mental
disorder, or based upon a prior assumption that a patient should
change his/her sexual orientation."
American Psychological Association. Guidelines for
Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients
believe that clients have the right to claim a gay identity, or to
diminish their homosexuality and to develop their heterosexual
potential." "NARTH agrees with the American Psychological
Association that "biological, psychological and social factors" shape
sexual identity at an early age for most people. But the
difference is one of emphasis. We place more emphasis on the
psychological (family, peer and social) influences, while the American
Psychological Association emphasizes biological influences--and has
shown no interest in (indeed, a hostility toward) investigating those
same psychological and social influences."
International "Exodus is a nonprofit, interdenominational
Christian organization promoting the message of Freedom from
homosexuality through the power of Jesus Christ."
There are ex-gay testimonies at this site.
Finally Free: Personal Stories: How Love and Acceptance Saved us from
Testimonies of ex-exgays, a publication of the Human Rights Campaign
Mission Impossible: Why Reparative Therapies and Ex-Gay Ministries Fail
Jones & Yarhouse's
Homosexuality:The Use of Scientific Research in the Church's
Moral Debate A book
review by Jeramy Townsley (April, 2001)
by Kim I. Mills, Education Director, Human Rights Campaign
"Cures versus Choices: Agendas in Sexual Reorientation Therapy"
by A. Lee Beckstead, PhD
Abstract: Longstanding debates have occured in
the mental health fields on the issues surrounding sexual reoriantation
therapy. Both sides agree that a subset of individuals with same-sex
attraction seeks help or a "cure" for their homosexual attractions.
However, each position tends to respond with a limited,
exclusionary choice to be an "out" gay or an "ex"-gay. These
dichotomized options may not serve all clients with same-sex
attractions who are seeking help in dealing with religious conflicts.
The perspectives of 20 individuals (2 women, 18 men) who report
benefiting from reparative/conversion therapy are described. In
contrast to previous imprecise claims of change, a more complex
conceptual framework is presented regarding the definitions of a
successful outcome from such treatments. Research and political
implications are discussed as well as the need for more effective
clinical strategies that integrate conservative social identities with
same-sex attractions [Article copies available for a fee from
The Haworth Document Delivery Sercice: 1-800-HAWORTH. Email address:
<http://www.HaworthPress.com> 2001 by the Haworth Press,
Inc. All rights reserved.]
short article by Lee Beckstead, summarizing his findings (written
for an LDS audience)